Fostering a Gentler, Healthier and more Compassionate World for all Living Beings

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References

1. Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the UK Dept of Health (1991)

2. Ho-Pham LT et al. Vegetarianism, bone loss, fracture, and vitamin D: a longitudinal study in Asian vegans and non-vegans. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012;66(1):75-82.

3. Kohlenberg-Mueller K et al. Calcium balance in young adults on a vegan and lacto-vegetarian diet. J Bone Miner Metab. 2003; 21(1):28-33.

4. Lanham-New SA. `Is “vegetarianism” a serious risk factor for osteoporotic fracture? Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90(4):910-1.

5. Appleby P, Roddam A, Allen N, Key T., Comparative fracture risk in vegetarians and nonvegetarians in EPIC-Oxford. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007;61(12):1400-1406.

6. Can vegans have healthy bones? A Literature Review, Topics in Integrative Health Care2014,Vol. 5(4) ID: 5.4003, Accessible at:
http://www.tihcij.com/Articles/Can-Vegans-Have-Healthy-Bones--ALiterature-Review.aspx?id=0000440 .

7. NIH Consensus Development Panel on Osteoporosis Prevention, Diagnosis, and Therapy. Osteoporosis prevention, diagnosis, and therapy. JAMA. 2001 Feb14; 285(6): 785-95.

8. Rice B, Quann E, Miller G. Meeting and exceeding dairy recommendations: Effects of dairy consumption on nutrient intakes and risk of chronic disease. Nutr Rev. 2013; 71(4): 209-223.

9. Abelow B, Holford T, Insogna K. Cross-cultural association between dietary animal protein and hip fracture: A hypothesis. Calcif Tissue Int. 1992; 50:14-18.

10. Lanou A. Should dairy be recommended as part of a healthy vegetarian diet? Counterpoint. Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 89(Suppl): 16388-42S.

11. Michaelsson K, Wolk A, Langenskiold S, Basu S, Warensjo Lemming E, Melhus H, et al. Milk intake and risk of mortality and fractures in women and men: Cohort studies. BMJ. 2014 Oct 28;349:g6015

12. Heaney R.P., Weaver C.M. and Recker R.R. 1988. Calcium absorbability from spinach. Am. J. Clin. Nutr.. 47 (4) 707-9.

13. Heaney R.P. and Weaver C.M. 1990. Calcium absorption from kale. Am. J. Clin. Nutr.51 (4) 656-7.) e  

Calcium-rich recipes

Mushroom and Nut-Stuffed Greens

6 large spring green leaves

1 tbsp organic virgin coconut oil

4oz (115g) breakfast mushrooms, chopped

2oz (55g) mixed chopped nuts

1 tbsp soya sauce

2oz (55g) breadcrumbs

1 tbsp organic extra virgin olive oil

1 clove garlic, crushed

1 small carrot, finely chopped

½ stick celery, finely chopped

14oz (400g) tinned tomatoes, chopped

1. Carefully cut away any thick stalk from the spring greens. Blanch the leaves in boiling water for 2 minutes until soft. Drain and rinse in cold water to prevent them cooking any further. Set aside.

2. Fry the mushrooms in the rapeseed oil: once the oil has been soaked up add the soya sauce and increase the heat. Keep cooking until the mushrooms release their juice. Add the chopped nuts and then enough breadcrumbs to soak up any surplus liquid. Set aside.

3. Sauté the garlic, carrot and celery in the olive oil until softened. Add the tomatoes and cook (10-15 minutes) until reduced to quite a thick consistency. Season to taste

4. Take 1/6 of the mushroom stuffing and roll a spring leaf around it – the end result should be roughly the size of a cannelloni tube. Repeat with the remaining stuffing and leaves.

5. Place all six rolled leaves in an ovenproof dish. Pour over the tomato sauce. Cover with aluminium foil and bake at 190°C/375°F/Gas Mark 5 for 30 minutes. Serves 2 

Curly Kale and Chick Pea Curry

3 tbsp organic virgin coconut oil

1 medium onion, chopped

2 cloves garlic, crushed

2-4 tsps curry powder

14oz (400g) tin chopped tomatoes

14oz (400g) tin chick peas

4oz (115g) curly kale, chopped

Sea Salt and pepper to taste

2 tbsp fresh coriander, chopped - optional

1. Sauté onion in oil until it is light brown. Add garlic and curry powder and cook for a further minute.

2. Add tomatoes, drained chickpeas and kale. Bring to the boil and cook for 10-20 minutes until kale has softened to your liking.

3. Season to taste with salt and pepper. Serve garnished with chopped coriander and rice or salad. Serves 2.


Permission is generously granted by the Vegan Society for the information provided above, on Calcium in the Vegan Diet. Click on the link below for a informative and inspiring website by the Vegan Society. The Vegan Society is an educational charity that promotes and supports the vegan lifestyle.

http://www.vegansociety.com

 

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